International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Evaluation of Building Energy Use in South Western Nigeria

The study investigated the energy needs of buildings in South Western Nigeria; examined factors influencing energy loss in buildings and examined the factors influencing implementation of energy saving opportunities in South Western Nigeria with a view to providing information that will enhance economic (cost) and environmental sustainability. The study made use of primary data collected by carrying out building energy audits on 40 buildings that utilize the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system in the study area selected through a purposive sampling technique and administration of questionnaires to the building users. Data collected included energy needs in buildings, building user’s needs for thermal comfort, air leaks in building envelopes and the envelope characteristics, and user's agreement on energy saving measures. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mode, mean score and heat transmission formular. The results on energy needs revealed that space cooling accounts for the highest (100%) energy need than space heating (10%) in South Western Nigeria. Results on energy loss revealed that inadequate envelope from air leaks with external windows having the highest percent (72.5%) of air leaks, and (67.5%) unawareness of building users are factors influencing energy loss in buildings. The results on energy saving opportunities revealed that efficient building insulation is a vital measure (MS= 3.8) to save energy in buildings in South Western Nigeria and it is influenced by financial capability of building users (MS= 3.7). The study concluded that efficient building insulation is a vital measure to enhance energy savings in buildings and it is greatly influenced by the financial capability of the building users.

Energy Loss, Energy Saving, HVAC, Buildings

APA Style

Alegbeleye, C. K., Nwaogu, J. M., Ifeoluwa, A., Adelerin, T., Damilola, A. J. (2024). Evaluation of Building Energy Use in South Western Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy, 13(1), 8-18.

ACS Style

Alegbeleye, C. K.; Nwaogu, J. M.; Ifeoluwa, A.; Adelerin, T.; Damilola, A. J. Evaluation of Building Energy Use in South Western Nigeria. Int. J. Sustain. Green Energy 2024, 13(1), 8-18. doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20241301.12

AMA Style

Alegbeleye CK, Nwaogu JM, Ifeoluwa A, Adelerin T, Damilola AJ. Evaluation of Building Energy Use in South Western Nigeria. Int J Sustain Green Energy. 2024;13(1):8-18. doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20241301.12

Copyright © 2024 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Vlek, G., Rothengatter, T. (2005). A Review of Intervention Studies Aimed at Household Energy Conservation. Journal of environment psychology, 25, pp. 273–291.
2. Al-Obaidi, K., Ismail, M., Rahman, A. (2014). Passive Cooling Techniques through Reflective and Radiative Roofs in Tropical Houses in Southeast Asia. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 3(3), pp. 283-297.
3. Asif, S. (2012). Advanced Building Technologies for Sustainability, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
4. Barr, S., Gilg, A. W., Ford, N. (2005). The household Energy Gap: Examining the Divide Between Habitual and Purchase-Related Conservation Behaviours. Energy Policy, 33, pp. 1425–1444.
5. Ben, U. I., Margaret, C. B. (2014). Adopting Intelligent Buildings in Nigeria: The Hopes and Fears. 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology (ICETET'2014), May 30-31, 2013, London, UK.
6. Chikaire, J., Nnadi, F. N., Anyoha, N. O. (2011). Access to Sustainable Energy: A Panacea to Rural Household Poverty in Nigeria. Continental Journal of Renewable Energy, 2(1), pp. 7–18.
7. Coletti, M., Fano, E. (2008) Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Facts and Figures. Refrigeration World, 4, pp. 8-11.
8. David, K. (2015). An Assessment of Energy Technologies and Research Opportunities: Increasing Energy Efficiency of Building System and Technology. U.S.A: Quadrennial Technology Review.
9. Energy Information Administration (EIA), (2005). World Energy Overview, 1993-2003, Energy information Administration. Washington; DC. Retrieved from http://www.eia.doe.govr/emeu/overview/htm/.
10. Fluke corporation (2010). Top 6 Places to Look for Energy Losses in Commercial Buildings, accessed through
11. Frederiks, E. R., Stenner, K., Hobman, E. V. (2015). The Socio-demographic and Psychological Predictors of Residential Energy Consumption: A comprehensive review. Energies, 8, pp. 573–609.
12. James, A. G., Thomas, H. (2017), Assessment of the Governance System Regarding Adoption of Energy Efficient Appliances by Households in Nigeria. Energies, 10, p. 132.
13. Jens, L. (2008). Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes; Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. France: International Energy Agency(IEA).
14. Jochem E., (2009). Passive Houses and Buildings: Improving the Efficiency of R&D and the Market Diffusion of Energy Technologies. Physica-Verlag, HD; pp. 105-141.
15. John, F. A., Akinloye, L. (2012). Opportunities and Challenges to Electrical Energy Conservation and CO2 Emissions Reduction in Nigeria’s Building Sector, Energies, 2, pp. 2012-2032.
16. Jon, A., Grace, H. (2008). Do it yourself Home Energy Audit: Green Healthy Homes for a Healthy Environment. USA; City Seattle light. Retrieved from
17. King, D., Browne, J., Layard, R., O’Donnell, G., Rees, M., Stern, N., Turner, A. (2015). A Global Apollo Programme to Combat Climate Change. London School of Economics, London.
18. King, S. (2015). Energy Efficiency in Building Thermal Systems. Building Energy Auditing Module, pp. 901-951, New York, NY: Edwein Press.
19. Lindberg, R., Leivo, V. (2005). Building Energy Consumption and Thermal Performance of the Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) exterior walls. Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, Innovation and Development. Energy and Buildings, 38(2), pp. 519-523.
20. Luis P., Jose, O., Juan, F. C., Ismael, R. (2011). A Review of HVAC Systems Requirements in Building Energy Regulations. Energy and Buildings, 43, pp. 255-268.
21. Nair, G., Gustavsson, L., Mahapatra, K. (2010) Factors Influencing Energy Efficiency Investments in Existing Swedish Residential Buildings. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 2956–2963.
22. Oyedepo, Sunday O. (2012). Energy Efficiency and Conservation Measures: Tools for Sustainable Energy Development in Nigeria, International Journal Energy Engineering, 2, pp. 86-98.
23. O'Hara, P. A. (2009). Political Economy of Climate Change, Ecological Destruction and Uneven Development. Ecological Economics, 69(2), pp. 223-234.
24. Perez, G., Coma, J., Martorell, I., Cabeza L. F. (2014). Vertical Greenery Systems (VGS) for Energy Saving in Buildings. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39, pp. 139-165.
25. Rasmus, H. (2014). Petersen Strategy for Energy Renovation of Buildings, The Route to Energy Efficient Buildings in Tomorrow’s Denmark, May 2014, Danish Government. Retrieved from
26. Sadineni, S. B., Madala, S., Boehm, R. F. (2011). Passive Building Energy Savings: A Review of Building Envelope Components. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(8), pp. 3617-3631.
27. Sambo, A. S. (2009). Strategic Developments in Renewable Energy in Nigeria; Energy Conversion and Management. International Association of Energy Economics, 4, pp. 15–19.
28. Sergio, G. B., Lucie, K., Giuseppe, P., Petr S. (2010). Intelligent Use of Energy at School (IUSES). Building Energy Efficiency, 4, pp. 1564-1660.
29. Subhash M., Usmani, J. A., Sanjeev V. (2012). Energy Saving Analysis in Building Walls Through Thermal Insulation System. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), 2, pp. 128-135.
30. Türkan, G. O., Semiha, K. (2010). Heat gain through Trombe Wall Using Solar Energy in a Cold Region of Turkey. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(18), pp. 2768-2778.
31. Wei, C. Y. (2011). Design of Energy Consumption Monitoring and Energy-Saving Management System of Intelligent Building Based on the Internet of things. Electronics, Communications and Control, 2, pp. 171-183.
32. William, M., Pinto, F. (2000). Energy Supply Demand Integrations Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies. Mit Press, Cambridge: pp. 230-257.
33. Yang, L., Yan, H. Lam, J. C. (2014). Thermal Comfort and Building Energy Consumption Implications. Applied Energy, 115, pp. 164-173.
34. Yohanna, I., Iortyer, A., Humphery, I. I., Aondover, A. (2013). Assessment of Energy Use Pattern in Residential Buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria, American Journal of Engineering Research, 2, pp. 271-275.
35. Zhuolun, C., Xiaowei, W. (2015). Analysis and Evaluation of Holistic Energy Saving for Modern Buildings. International Journal of Smart Home, 9, pp. 219-230.